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Effect Size

What is the effect size?

As I discuss in the null hypothesis significance test section, one drawback of the p value is that it does not give us any information about how large the effect is. For example, with a t test, we can know whether one technique is faster than the other, but we cannot tell how large the contribution of the techniques is to the improvement of performance time (i.e., the size of the effect). And the p value is dependent of the sample size. So, if you just really look for a significant difference, you can simply run your study until you find it (although it might require hundreds or thousands of participants). Thus, we want to have some metrics which do not depend on the sample size, and show the size of the effect.

Effect size is the metric that indicates the magnitude of the effect caused by a factor. The effect size is independent of the sample size. Thus, the effect size can complement some of the shortcomings of the NHST and p value.

How can we calculate the effect size?

There are a number of metrics that indicate the effect size. But common ones are Cohen's d, Pearson's r, and eta-squared (and partial eta-squared). You can understand the way to calculate them better within the context of statistical tests, so I have put these explanations in each statistical method (e.g., the effect size for a t test).

Confidence interval for the effect size

As we see in the mean (or average), there is a notion of a confidence interval (CI) for the effect size. The calculated effect size is merely an estimate, and it is not the exact value of the effect. Thus, the estimate has an error range, and the confidence interval shows it. One difference from the confidence interval for the mean is that the confidence interval for the effect size can be asymmetric. This means that the estimated effect size may not be the average of the lower bound and upper bound of the confidence interval. For example, you can encounter cases like your estimated effect size is 0.5, and the confidence interval is [0.1, 0.7].

Including the confidence interval for the effect size has not been common yet, but some research fields have started to require researchers to do so in journal and conference papers. Again, the calculated effect size is not a definite value, so it is understandable that knowing the precision is important.

Another important information we can take from the confidence interval is whether it includes the zero or not. The zero effect size means that there is no effect by the factor. With the effect size and the range of the confidence interval, we can know what implications they have as follows.

CI includes the zeroThe absolute value of the effect sizeThe range of CIImplication
NosmallsmallThe effect apparently exists, but the effect is small.
smalllargeThis is unlikely to happen.
largesmallThe effect apparently exists, and we are sure that the effect is large.
largelargeThe effect apparently exists and may be large, but we are not sure about the real size of the effect.
YessmallsmallWe are sure that the effect is small, but not sure whether the effect really exists.
smalllargeWe are not sure whether the effect exists. We thus need more data.
largesmallThis is unlikely to happen.
largelargeWe are not sure whether the effect exists. We thus need more data.

Maybe a little tricky part is that the confidence interval does depend on the sample size. So by simply increasing the sample size, you can narrow the confidence interval, and will be able to claim that the effect exists at some point (again this might require you to recruit hundreds or thousands of participants though). However, differently from the p value, the effect size itself is independent of the sample size, and increasing the sample size does not contribute to improving the size of the effect. Thus, looking at both the effect size and its confidence interval is important to correctly interpret the result.

If you want to know more about the effect size and its confidence interval, you can check some stats books and the following paper written by Ken Kelly. It also talks about how to use the MBESS package. Confidence Intervals for Standardized Effect Sizes: Theory, Application, and Implementation


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CS 1.6 - How come everyone never uninstalls

CS Global Offensive is the most well-known and most played multiplayer game since forever. The game is being played in every landscape of this world. Especially in, every gaming club, in every Pcs and Laptop and even on almost Xbox system.
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CS 1.6 is actually a modification of the Half-life game which had already been made in the late 90's. This online FPS game is a tactical and reaction based shooter which tests the brain and responsive mastery of the user. Valve Inc took charge of developing this FPS in the 2000s, changed it by adding some new varied and exciting metrics to it.
The most notable the time-less features of CS GO is the choice to [url=]Host your own server[/url]. This means a whole new world for users to build team server and play. With such a option available to teams the fun is infinite. Many years ago friends used Dedicated Servers to run their CS Condition Zero Servers. In this day in age gamers might use a [url=]EPYC VPS Server[/url] and surely will have smooth game play in Counter Strike GO.

CS CZ has been a source of hobby for the adults since its launch. The question is how come? Well, it is because it is that type of shooter which never actually gets out of the grace even if one plays it for year after year.
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So, modders can compose many maps for their own communities or for their hosted servers. Isn't it beautiful that you play every game on all these maps and then clans attempt to get experience with that particular mode by playing over and over via amazing engagements. This in my point of view is the singular reason why groups ever leaving even after hours of games.

The levels can be customized through different programs and software, which are always free to use and one can be an expert in it by watching YouTube tutorials. Most people believe that Counter Strike Global Offensive came with thousands of levels but the statement is that it came only with some starter maps but over time the mappers created some varied distinct maps on the Valve Hammer platform which the users have been installing them via multiple websites.

Another piece which is keeping Counter Strike Global Offensive long-lasting and exciting is the ability to make your own listen server. One can make a separate server for their own teammates so that they can have some varied battles with each other or they can invite other rivals for a fight. As mentioned before friends can have a [url=]VPS EPYC[/url] and still have good games in CS GO.

Finally, there are also many interesting spray logos available which the users can draw and can spray them on the walls or anything else on servers. The spray logos possibly show the icon of the particular players or clans.

In other terms customising CS Source was never fast and easy before. Now one can never get used to this thrilling shooter game.

Also, basically all the titles that have multiple modes definitely have several features that typically provide the groups with noteworthy moments spent in front of the gaming computer. Whether you are a teenager or already a grown up it is impossible not to have played Counter Strike Global Offensive at least once.

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